Zigi Ben-Haim 


American, Israeli, b. 1945, Baghdad Iraq.

Lives and works in Soho, New York, United States and Tel-Aviv, Israel.



1972-74        M.F.A., San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, USA

1972-73        M.A., J.F.K. University, Orinda, California, USA

1971              California College of Arts & Crafts, Oakland, California, USA

1966-70        The Avni Institute of Fine Arts, Tel-Aviv, Israel


Grants & Awards

2015-16     National Art & Culture Legacy Program - ArtCart, NYC

2013          Pollock Krasner Foundation Grant

2007-08   The Emily Harvey Foundation, Fellowship to Venice, Italy

2004         DAAD Fellowship to Berlin, Germany

2000         Niche Award for sculpture

1996          Pollock Krasner Foundation Grant.

1991           Guest Artist Fellowship, Artists Union, U.S.S.R.

1990          Pollack Krasner Foundation Grant.

1990          MacDowell Colony Residency, NH, USA

1984          National Endowment for the Arts.

1983          New York State Council on the Arts, A.R.E.A. Project.

1982          Muestra Int. do Obra Grafica, Bilbao, Spain.

1970          Ministry of Culture, Israel

1966-70    America Israel Culture Foundation, Israel


Selected Solo Exhibitions

2018      “Sweeping Glances,” Hezi Cohen Gallery, Tel-Aviv, Israel

2017      "Treasure The Green" Broadway, New York, NY. Commissioned by the Department of Transportation.

2015       "Made in the USA" - Lake Placid Center for the Arts, Lake Placid, NY

2015       Gallerie Rother-Winter, Wiesbaden, Germany

2015       “Works from the 70’s” – The Chelouche Gallery, Tel-Aviv, Israel

2014       "Minding the Surface" NYU Kimmel Galleries New York 

2013       "Hidden Traces", Chelouche Gallery Tel Aviv Israel

2013       “Footprints of Identity,” Schmalfuss Gallery Berlin, Germany

2012        New Works, Galerie Christine Rother, Wiesbaden, Germany (catalogue)

2011         "90 Days of Berlin," Germany House Gallery, New York, NY, USA (catalogue)

2011         ‘Al Naharot Bavel,’ The Babylonian Jewry Heritage Center, Or-Yehuda, Israel

2009       Paintings and Photoworks, Gallery 40 Rother, Wiesbaden, Germany

2007        “Industrial Baroque,” Painting, Stefan Stux Gallery, New York, NY(catalogue)

2005        “90 Days of Berlin,” Sculpture, Paintings, & Drawings, Stefan Stux Gallery, New York, NY

2004-05   “Journey With Me,” Sculpture, German Embassy, Washington D.C. (catalogue)

2003-04   “SplendidStep”, Dag Hammarskjöld Plaza, New York, NY, commissioned by the City of New

                                York/Parks & Recreation (catalogue)

2003         “Journey with Me”, Grounds for Sculpture, Hamilton, NJ (catalogue)

                                “Painting and Sculpture”, Stefan Stux Gallery, New York, NY (catalogue)

2002         “Journey With Me,” Sculpture 1984-2000, in collaboration with Laumeier

                                 Sculpture Park, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (catalogue)

2000         “Blue Highway”, Haifa Museum, Haifa, Israel (catalogue)

                  “Summer Blue” drawings and paintings, ZDF, New York, NY

1999           Sculpture and Drawing, Las Vegas Art Museum, Las Vegas, NV (catalogue)

                                 “Journey With Me”, Sculpture 1984-1997, Cedarhurst Sculpture Park, Mt.

                                  Vernon, IL (catalogue) “Paintings 1992-1996”, Mitchell Museum, Mt. Vernon, IL

1998          “Zigi Ben-Haim; And Now Public Sculptures”, Eretz Israel Museum, Tel–Aviv,

                                   Produced by Projective-Artists Museums-Israeli Center (catalogue)

1997 – 98   “Journey With Me” Sculpture 1984 – 1997, Fordham University, Lincoln center

                                   Sculpture Garden, New York, NY (catalogue)

1997           “Paintings & Drawings”, Chelouche Gallery, Tel-Aviv, Israel

1996           "Leaf Path", Curated by Maggie Nolan, Ann Harper Gallery, Amagansett, NY

1995           "Windows '95", ZDF German T.V., New York, NY

1994            Benshahn Galleries, WPC Collage, Wayne, NJ (catalogue)

                  "Scattered Echo", Chelouche Gallery, Tel-Aviv, Israel (catalogue).

1989-91      "The Dance", Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (catalogue)

                 “Works on paper”, Gallery Andreas Tornberg, Lund, Sweden.

1987          Jewish Museum Sculpture Court, New York, NY

1986         “Walking Field”, Project Room, P.S. 1, Queens, NY, Façade Gallery, Paris, France

1985          Baumgartner Gallery, Washington, DC

1984          Israel Museum, Jerusalem, Israel (catalogue), Gallery Andreas Tomberg, Lund, Sweden

1980          Annemarie De Kruijff, Paris, France

1978           Munro Gallery, Hamburg, West Germany

1977           Bertha Urdang Gallery, Jerusalem, Israel (catalogue)

1976           Bertha Urdang Gallery, New York, New York (catalogue)


Selected Group Exhibitions

2018         Emerging Escazu Project, W22 Gallery , San Jose, Coast Rica

2017         50 Years of Public Art in NYC Parks, Central Park, New York, NY

2016         Denatured, Morris-Jamel Mansion Museum, New York, NY

2016        From NYC to Berlin, The Art Scouts Gallery, Berlin, Germany

2016        Nighttouch: 1984 , Carnegie Museum, Oxnard, California

2015        Art Brussels 2015, Brussels Expo, Brussels, Belgium

2014        Nighttouch: 1984- Frederick R. Weisman Museum of Art, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA

2013        Calligraffiti 1984-2013  Leila Heller Gallery, New York, NY                      

2011         Markers VII ‘Mapping’, The International Artists’ Museum, Venice, Italy 

2010         NASA Art: 50 years of Exploration, Washington D.C.

2010         Paintings and Photoworks, Art Hamptons, Artventures Gallery, Bridge Hampton, NY

2009        Works on Paper, Chelouche Gallery, Tel-Aviv, Israel

2008        KIAF, Art Fair, Korea

2008        Photo Miami, Miami, USA

2007        Gallery Artists, Chelouche Gallery, Tel-Aviv, Israel

2005        The Kreeger Museum, Washington D.C.

2004        “Sculpture”, Grounds for Sculpture, Hamilton, NJ

                “Enchantment” Wave Hill, N.Y.

                “The International Armory Show”, Stefan Stux Gallery Booth, Pier 90, New York, NY (catalogue)

2003       “Wandering Library”, International Artists’ Museum, Venice, Italy

               “Works from the Collection”, Jewish Museum, New York, NY

               “The International Armory Show”, Stefan Stux Gallery Booth, Pier 90, New York, NY, (catalogue)

2002       “Spirit of New York”, 25 NY artists, 55 Wall St., New York, NY

                “Reactions”, Exit Art, New York, NY

1999         “Works from the 70ies”, Tel-Aviv Museum, Israel

1998         Chelouch Gallery, Tel-Aviv, Israel

                “Small Paintings”, Wainscott Gallery, Wainscott, NY

1996         “Paper”, Wainscott Gallery, Wainscott, NY

                "Blue & White", Binet Gallery, Tel-Aviv, Israel

1995         "Works of the '70's", Chelouche Gallery, Tel-Aviv, Israel

1994         Basel International Art fair, Basel, Switzerland.

1993         "Action Traces", Chelouche Gallery, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

                "Monumental Propaganda", ICI Traveling Show, USA/Russia.

                 Sculpture Biennale, Ein Hod, Israel (catalogue).

                “Drawing”, B4A Gallery, New York, NY

1992         “Invitational”, Bill Base Gallery, New York, NY

1991          Art Cologne, Chelouch Gallery, Cologne, Germany.

                "Collage: New Applications" curated by William Zimmer, Lehman College Art Gallery, New York, NY

1990        “Drawings”, Anita Shapolsky Gallery, New York, NY.

1989         "From the Frederick Weisman Collection", Neuberger Museum, New York, NY

                "Art Aluminum", Muse Le Technigue, Montreal, Canada.

1988         "Embodiment Personification", Art In General, New York, NY

                New Jersey Center for Visual Arts, Summit, NJ

               “The Candor of Form”, 1 World Trade Center, New York, NY

                Bali Miller Gallery, New York, NY

                Nina Freudenheim Gallery, New York, NY

1987         56 Bleecker Street Gallery, New York, NY

                "Constructs", Anita Shapolsky Gallery, New York, NY

1986         "Paper Now", Cleveland Museum, Cleveland, Ohio.

                Snug Harbor, Outdoor Sculpture, Staten Island, NY.

               "Transculture Transmedia", Exit Art Gallery, New York, NY.

               "Monumental Drawings: Works by 22 Contemporary American Artists", Brooklyn Museum,          

                                      Brooklyn, NY

1985         "Public Art in the Eighties" curated by Jean E. Feinberg, Jamie Szoke Gallery, New York, NY

                “From the Museum Collection”, Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, NY

                "Art & the Environment", Lever House, New York, New York.

1985-87    "2nd International Shoebox Sculpture"- traveling exhibition, University of Hawaii Art Gallery,

                                      Honolulu, Hawaii (catalogue).

1985-86    "Immigrant Artists/ American Experience 1940-85"- traveling exhibition,

                                      Independent Curators Inc. (catalogue).

1984-89    Frederick R. Weisman Foundation for Traveling Art Exhibitions (catalogue).

1983-85    "Groovy Grove - Sculpture on Shoreline Sites", A.R.E.A. Project

                                       Wards Island, NY (catalogue; via NYS Council For The Arts Grant).

1983         "Ornaments as Sculpture", Sculpture Center, New York, NY.

                C.D.S. Gallery, New York, NY (catalogue).

                Blackfish Gallery, Drawings, Portland, Oregon.

                Nina Freudenheim Gallery, Buffalo, New York.

                Tel-Hai, Contemporary Art Meeting, Israel (catalogue).

                Bayer Museum, Evanston, Illinois.

                U.S.A. Today Newspaper Company, Washington D.C. (catalogue).

                “Varieties of Sculptural Ideas, Drawings & Maquettes”, Max Hutchinson Gallery, New York, NY.

1982         "The New Explosion: Paper Arts", Fine Arts Museum of Long Island, Hampstead, NY (catalogue).

                "Pair Group", Jersey City Museum, Jersey City, NJ

                International Sculpture Conference, Speaker & Exhibitor, Oakland Museum, Oakland, CA.

               Israel Museum, Jerusalem, Israel.

               Max Hutchinson Gallery, New York, NY

               Arteder 82, Muestra International de Obra Grafica, Bilbao, Spain (catalogue).

1981         Gallery Mors Moessa, Gothenburg, Sweden.

               "Wall Paper/ Roompaper", Laica, Los Angeles, CA

                Basel International Art Fair, Basel, Switzerland.

                Tel-Aviv Museum, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

               "The Work of Twenty Contemporary Artists", Museum of Fine Arts, Springfield, MA

1980        Basel, International Art Fair, Basel, Switzerland.

               "With Paper About Paper", Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY (catalogue).

               "Forecast of the Season", Touchstone, New York, NY

1979         Basel, International Art Fair, Basel, Switzerland.

                Gallery Loyse Oppenheim, Nyon, Switzerland.

                Israel Museum, Jerusalem, Israel.

                Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Canada.

                Alexandra Monett, Brussels, Belgium.

1978         Touchstone Gallery, New York, NY

                International Kunstmarkt, Düsseldorf, West Germany.

              "Six Artists", Sara Levi Gallery, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

               "Notebook", Gordon Gallery, Tel-Aviv, Israel (catalogue).

               "Location/Direction/78", Rammi Nechoshtan Museum, Israel (catalogue).

                Basel International Art Fair, Basel, Switzerland (catalogue).

               "Work with Paper", Alexandra Monett Gallery, Brussels, Belgium.

               "Paper", The Dayton Art Institute, Ohio (catalogue).

                The Ohio State University Gallery, Columbus, Ohio.

                Davis Art Gallery, Akron, Ohio (catalogue).

1977         "New Acquisitions", Tel-Aviv Museum, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

                Marianne Deson Gallery, Chicago, Illinois.

                Bertha Urdang Gallery, New York, NY

1975         Northeastern University, Boston, MA


Selected Outdoor Public Sculpture

“Tribute to Ilan and Asaf”, Eilat Airport, Israel

“Treasure the Green,” New York Department of Transportation, Broadway, SoHo, NY,USA

“Awakening Spot”, Guild Hall Museum, East Hampton, NY, USA

"The King in Search of a Friend", Sculpture Park, Holon, Israel 

“Splendid Step”, Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY, USA

“Vintage Breeze,” IDC Herzelia University, Israel

“D-204,” IDC Herzelia University, Israel

“Night Sail,” Private Sculpture Garden, Hudson, NY, USA

“Sidewalk Scene,” Grounds for Sculpture, Hamilton, NJ, USA

PoeTree, President, Tel-Aviv, Israel                           

PoeTree, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Israel      

PoeTree, A sculpture garden, Valbonne, France

“Photoworks,” Heart Center, Chaim, Sheba Medical Center, Israel

“On the Main Road”, Ra’anana, Israel

Sculptures, Topor Sculpture Garden, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Israel

“Sea of Time”, Ashkelon, Israel

“The Bright Side of Tomorrow”, School, Gates and Fences, Ma’ale Hacdomim, Israel

“Jacob’s Ladder” Eilat, Israel

“Chariot of Time", University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

"The Dance", Art Acres Sculpture Park, Boca Raton, FL, USA

"A Note in the Green", Mishan, Neot Afeka, Tel-Aviv, Israel

"Legion of Titans", Tel-Aviv, Israel

"Beyond the Halting Step of Deeds", Riverdale, NY, USA

"Rolling Rock", River Hill Sculpture, Livingstone, NJ, U.S.A.

"Wind Hunter", Jerusalem, Israel.

"Rising Path", Phillip Berman Museum, Ursinus College, Coegevie, PA, USA

"Blooming Stone", Frederick Weisman Foundation of Art, Mitspe Ramon, Israel Los Angeles, CA, USA

Inside Growth, D-176, Israel

“D-183a,” Community Center Adath Jeshrun, Philadelphia, PA, USA


Works in Public Collections

Guggenheim Museum, New York, NY

Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, NY

Museum of Contemporary Art, Athens, Greece

Hofstra University Museum, Hempstead, NY

Columbia Museum of Art, Columbia, SC

Israel Air Force Center Foundation, Tel-Aviv, Israel

NASA, Houston, Texas

Bank Leumi USA, Fifth Avenue, New York, NY

Pfizer Company Collection, New York, NY

Reading Public Museum, Reading, PA

Haifa Museum, Haifa, Israel

Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

New School, New York, NY

University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.

Israel Museum, Jerusalem, Israel.

Malmo Museum, Malmo, Sweden.

Jewish Museum, New York, NY

Tel-Aviv Museum of Art, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Ghent Museum, Ghent, Belgium.

American National Gallery, Washington D.C.

Fine Arts Museum of Long Island, Hempstead, NY

Buscaglia-Castellanni, University Museum, Lewiston, NY

Dan Eilat Hotel, Israel.

International Paper Company, New York, NY

World Bank, Washington D.C.

Davis Polk & Wordwell, New York, NY

Westminster Bank, New York, NY

Israel Embassy, Washington D.C.

Frederick R. Weisman, Los Angeles, CA.

Rikers Hill Sculpture Park, Livingston, NJ

Heckscher Museum, Huntington, NY

Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio


Selected Bibliography

2016           “Soho Stories: A Neighborhood Oral History Project” New York Public Library, May 28, 16

2015           “Zigi Ben-Haim’s ‘Made in the USA’ At LPCA,” WAMC North East Public Radio, July 19, 15

2015           “Made in the USA,” North Country Public Radio, Regional News, July 17, 15

2015           “Made in the USA,” Adirondack Daily Enterprise, July 16, 15

2015           Zigi Ben-Haim in Conversation with Curator Ira Itzhaki, Jewish Business News, Jan. 15, 15

2015           “Works from the 70’s,” i24 News, Culture- January 06, 2015

2014           America-Israel Cultural Foundation 75th Anniversary Commemorative Posters

                                    – Passage to the Unkown

2014          35 x 35 Art Project, Copelouzos Family Art Museum

2013          New York One News, Minding the Surface

2013          Calligraffiti, Zigi Ben-Haim, feature, Wall Street International Magazine, September 5, 2013

2013          Idit Sharoni, Babylonian Magazine, Zigi Ben-Haim, The Museum for Babylonian Jewry

2013          Goldberg, Nina, "Zigi Ben-Haim - Footprints of Identity," Jewish Business News, July 9,  2013

2013          Lingemann, Susanne, “Hidden Poetry Revealed,” SoHo Life Magazine, May 2013

2012         “New Works; Zigi Ben-Haim,” Exhibition at Galerie Christine Rother, catalogue

2011          "Zigi Ben-Haim and His Elements of Survival" - German Missions in the United States

2010         Tobias, Allen “At Sotheby’s, a new star in the art constellation, Zigi Ben-Haim” NY Cultural Arts    

                               Examiner, The Examiner, March 30

2010         Artist Profile, “Who’s Who in America”

2009        NASA 50 Years of Exploration, NY Times

2007        Beth Wilson, Industrial Baroque, exhibition catalogue

2007        Commissions, Sculpture Magazine, June 2007

2007        Yam Hameiri, Yedioth America, Yedioth Aharonot, Zigi’s World, May 2007

2006        Amit Eytan, World News, Yedioth Aharonot, 2006

2005        Schaff, Trine, “Leaving the Suface,” The Jerusalem Post, September 9, 2005.

2005        Amit, Eitan, “A Hand to Space,” Yediot Aharonot, July 26, 2005

2005        Wilson, Beth, Zigi Ben-Haim, Exhibition Catalogue, May 2005

2005        Ronen, Merav, “We Live in the Studio,” Yediot Aharonot, March 25, 2005

2005       “Culture, Interview with Israeli Artist Zigi Ben-Haim,” The Week in Germany, March 4, 2005.

2004       Wei, Lilly “Grounds for sculpture”, Sculpture Magazine. Review, May 2004, catalogue.

2003       Wei, Lilly, Sculpture and Painting Exhibition at Stefan Stux Gallery, catalogue.

2003       Adelson, Fred B., “Sculptures share space with Strutting Peacocks”, New York Times,

                                June 22, 2003.

2003       Rivera, F.R., “Grounds for Sculpture”, In the Galleries, June 20, 2003.

2001        Schull, Mike, “Organic Contradiction”, Lifestyles, Thursday, May 18, 2001.

2000       Gaff, Jan, “Touring the art of Zigi Ben-Haim”, The Starr Press, Friday, May 26, 2000.

2000       Talmore, Daniella, Curator “Blue Sea of Water” catalogue.

1998        Morgan, Robert, “Zigi Ben-Haim Sculpture,” Review Magazine, April 26, 1998.

1997        Thaul Wechter, Dr, Vivian. Curator “Journey With Me” sculptures 1984 – 1987.

1996        Slivka, Rose C.S., “From the Studio,” The East Hampton Star, September 26, 1996.

               Braff, Phyllis, “Varied Work, Veering Far From Traditional,” New York Times,

                                  September 8, 1996.

1994         Zimmer, William, "Three Shows that Demonstrate the Importance of Imagination," New York Times,

                                  October 9, 1994.

1993         Ronen, Meir, "Zigi Ben-Haim at Chelouche Gallery," Jerusalem Post, 1993.

1992         "Artist Love New York," Review, New York Post, 1992.

1991         Cologne International Art Fair, Cologne, Germany, Exhibition Catalogue, 1991.

1989         Bernstock, Judith E., "The Dance," Sculpture Magazine, July/August 1989.

                Zimmer, William, "The Candor of Form," Sculpture Magazine, November 1989.

                "Art in New York," Idea Magazine, published in Tokyo, Japan, August 1989.

1988         Kimmelmand, Michael, "Sculptors Make A Case of Expression," New York Times, August 19, 1988

1987         Lutto, Rebecca Schlam, "Artists Pump Life Into Shapes", Jewish Standard, Jan 2, 1987.

                Malarcher, Patricia, "Paper's Third Dimension In Paramus," New York Times, Jan 18,  1987

1986         Kotik, Charlotta, "Monumental Drawings: Works by 22 Contemporary American Artists,”

                                    Exhibition Catalogue, The Brooklyn Museum, New York, September, 1986.

                Marter, Joan, "Contradictory Worlds: The Art of Zigi Ben-Haim," Arts Magazine, November 1986.

                Maier, Sue, "Using Cast-Off Materials to Create Art," Cleveland Jewish News, Dec. 12, 1985

1985         Brenson, Michael, "Environmental Works," The New York Times, March 1, 1985

               Coleman, Nicols, "Tricks of the Abstract," The Washington Post, March 7, 1985

                Kohen, Helen L., "Bass Show Explores Dual Legacy of Immigrant Artists," The Miami Herald,

                                      November 10, 1985

                Frederick R. Weisman Foundation of Art, catalogue, 1985.

1984         "The Second International Shoebox Sculpture Exhibition", catalogue, University of Hawaii,

                                      Honolulu, 1984.

                Bar-Kadma, Emanoel, "The Israeli Experience of the 'Wind Hunter'," Yediot Acharonot,

                                      October 1984.

                Brenson, Michael, "Animals Creep Back into Today's Art," New York Times, June 24, 1984.

                Dee Jonathan, "Art for Our Sake," Promenade Magazine, March 1984.

                Raynor, Vivien, "Works Made of Paper Not On It," New York Times, April 22 1984

               Scarborough, Jessica, "Sculptural Paper", Fiber Arts, April 1984.

               Zalmona, Yigal, "Zigi Ben-Haim, 1984", exhibition catalogue, Israel Museum, Oct. 1983

1983         Bannon, Anthony, "Artistry in Paper," The Buffalo News, October 16, 1983.

                Barzel, Amnon, "Tel-Hai  '83, Contemporary Meeting," exhibition catalogue, Tel-Hai, Israel,      

                                        September 1984.

                Ben-Haim, Tsipi, "Contemporary Art Meeting Tel-Hai '83," Sculptors International Magazine,

                                         November 1983.

                Brenson, Michael, "Sculpture of Summer is in Full Bloom," New York Times, July 8, 1983.

                Brouwer, Bert, "Paper Transformed," exhibition catalogue, Turman Gallery,

                                          Indiana State University, March 1983.

               Silverman, Dorthea M., "Sculpture on Shoreline Sites," exhibition catalogue, Ward's Island, NY,

                                           June 1983.

               Stark, Joannam "Ben-Haim: Art in the Urban Forest," The Israel Economist, April 1983.

               Tullp, Judd, "Paper Chase," Portfolio Magazine, May 1983.

               "On or About Paper," exhibition catalogue, U.S.A. Today Headquarters, October 16, 1982.

1982        Lomenhaft, Eleanor, "The New Explosion," exhibition catalogue, Fine Art Museum of Long Island,

                                            November 1982.

                Harrison, Helen A., "Exploring the Possibilities of Paper," The New York Times, December 19, 

                Zimmer, William, "Zigi Ben-Haim: Work In Progress," exhibition catalogue, Art Gallery of Hamilton,    

                                            October, 1982.

               Menzies, Neal, "Expanding Paper's Potential," Art Week Magazine, October 1981.

1981         Kotik, Charlotta, "With Paper About Paper," exhibition catalogue, Albright Knox Art Gallery,

                                            September 1980.

1980        Rudy, Stephen, "Tracing the Difference: An Introduction to the Work of Zigi Ben-Haim," April 1978

1978         Nechoshtan, Rammi, "Location/Direction/78," exhibition catalogue, Israel, 1978

                "Location/Direction/78," review, Heute Kunst, May 1978.

1977         Mainardi, Pat, review, Arts Magazine, February 1977.

               "Zigi Ben-Haim," exhibition catalogue, Bertha Urdang Gallery, July 1977.

1975         Frackmen, Noel, review, Arts Magazine, May 1975